Coordinates: 10°N 49°E / 10°N 49°E / 10; 49 Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic:
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Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية), is a country in the Horn of Africa. The country is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland. Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands. Hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 17.1 million, of which over 2 million live in the capital and largest city Mogadishu, and has been described as Africa's most culturally homogeneous country. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the country's north. Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the south. The official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic. Most people in the country are Muslims, the majority of them Sunni.
In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial center. It is among the most probable locations of the ancient Land of Punt. During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Sultanate, the Adal Sultanate, and the Sultanate of the Geledi.
In the late 19th century, Somali Sultanates like the Isaaq Sultanate and the Majeerteen Sultanate were colonized by both the Italian and British Empire. European colonists merged the tribal territories into two colonies, which were Italian Somaliland and the British Somaliland Protectorate. Meanwhile, in the interior, the Dervishes led by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan engaged in a two-decade confrontation against Abyssinia, Italian Somaliland, and British Somaliland and were finally defeated in the 1920 Somaliland Campaign. Italy acquired full control of the northeastern, central, and southern parts of the area after successfully waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. In 1960, the two territories united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government.
Siad Barre of the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, brutally attempting to squash the Somaliland War of Independence in the north of the country. The SRC subsequently collapsed 22 years later, in 1991, with the onset of the Somali Civil War and Somaliland soon declared independence. Somaliland still controls the northwestern portion of Somalia representing just over 27% of its territory. Since this period most regions returned to customary and religious law. In the early 2000s, a number of interim federal administrations were created. The Transitional National Government (TNG) was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004, which reestablished the Somali Armed Forces.
In 2006, with a US backed Ethiopian intervention, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups, including jihadists al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory they had seized, and a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. Despite this, insurgents still control much of central and southern Somalia, and wield influence in government-controlled areas, with the town of Jilib acting as the insurgents' de facto capital. A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012, reforming Somalia as a federation. The same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu, despite al-Shabaab frequently carrying out attacks there.
Somalia is one of the least developed countries and its GDP per capita is one of the world's lowest. It has maintained an informal economy mainly based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, and telecommunications. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Make sure to check the time to make sure it is correct. Not all watches tell the time correctly. Depending on the location of your cell phone, your time could be off for as much as 5 minutes or more. Looking for more information on this area? Look below for tips such as population and more.
You can use a old world analog clock, your smartphone, or even a sundial to tell the time.
Watches work by logging track of the number of rotations of a particular wheel or spring. As the wheel or spring spins, it moves a gear that is connected to the hands of the clock. The speed at which the wheel or spring turns is regulated by a pendulum or weight, which swings back and forth as the clock ticks.
Assuming you already know how to tell the time on a old school clock face, reading a digital clock is easy and straightforward. All you need to do is identify the numbers on the clock face and read them as if they were on a traditional clock face.
For example, if the digital clock reads "12:15," then it is 12:15pm.
Digital clocks display the time as a number, typically in hours, minutes, and seconds. Analog clocks display the time using hands on a clock face.
There are pros and negatives to each type of clock. Digital clocks are easy to read at a glance and can be very accurate. However, they can also be harder to set and may require batteries. Analog clocks are often more aesthetically pleasing and can be operated without batteries. However, they can be more difficult to read at a glance and may not be as accurate as digital clocks.
In order to tell time without a clock, you can use a variety of methods that only use the sun and shadows. One method is to find a stick and put it in the ground so that the shadow is cast on the ground. The length of the shadow will indicate what time it is. Another method is to use your hand to estimate how long the shadow is. You can do this by holding your hand up to the sun and making a fist. The space between your thumb and first finger will be about 15 minutes on a sundial. You can also use your watch or phone to find out what time it is by using an online world clock like this one.
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